Guide World Metal Markets: The United States Strategic Stockpile and Global Market Influence

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World Metal Markets: The United States Strategic Stockpile and Global Market Influence: Patricia Perkins: Amazon US.
Table of contents

Also because of several sizable supply shortages in , the Congress authorized emergency sales of antimony, lead, and zinc. In addition the President approved the release of copper from the Defense Production Act inventory in the stockpile in to relieve industry hardship cases Office of Emergency Planning, Thus it can be said that the national stockpile materials served as a economic stabilizer during this period.

The Materials Reserve and Stockpile Act of directed that the national stockpile, the supplemental stockpile, including the Commodity Credit Corporation stockpile, and the Defense Production Act inventory be combined into one National Stockpile and that a long-range disposal plan be developed to reduce the inventory of excess materials.

The Department. The National Stockpile would be managed as one stockpile to hold all the required strategic and critical materials. In February , the President authorized the release of quinine sulfate from the National Stockpile. The material was needed for use in Vietnam to combat a strain of malaria that resisted the synthetic drug being used. In December the President ordered the release of nickel for use in defense production. A reevaluation of the stockpile by the National Security Council was completed by This was the basis for developing new goals or requirements for each material.

Three conditions were set for the scenarios used to develop the materials requirements: 1 materials would be used only for defense purposes; 2 the analysis would include simultaneous multitheater Europe and Asia conflicts; and 3 imports of supplies would be available for all years of the national emergency. In the Office of Emergency Planning was abolished and its stockpile planning and policy functions were transferred to the GSA. In the President issued new stockpile policy guidance.

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The National Stockpile would support defense requirements during a major war over a 3-year period, operate on the assumption of full-scale industrial mobilization and increased materials demands, provide for a wide range of civilian economic needs to ensure a healthy economy, and develop the Annual Materials Plan to include provision for any acquisition or disposal of excess materials.

The National Stockpile program was changed again in by the Strategic and Critical Materials Stockpiling Revision Act; this was the second major revision of the original Act. The management of storage, maintenance, upgrades, purchases, and sales remained with the GSA. In addition, the National Defense Stockpile Transaction. Fund was established in the Treasury Department for money received from sales. A 3-year duration for the conflict or national emergency period was reaffirmed.

In November , the President released a portion of the chrysotile asbestos to the Department of Defense. The one operating mine, in Canada, had been depleted of reserves and the only other mine in the world, in Zimbabwe, was not producing FEMA, During the early s, the U. The world economy was in a recession that impacted the production of minerals. In the GSA initiated a presidentially directed long-term program to upgrade chromite and manganese ores to high-carbon ferrochromium and high-carbon ferromanganese.

This program would help sustain a U. The program was paid for with excess stockpile materials that were authorized for disposal FEMA, Between and , nearly 1. Disposals were continued, and the funds were used to support the presidentially directed ferroalloy upgrading program and the transfer of silver to the Department of the Treasury for use in minting Liberty coins FEMA, Limited purchases, disposals, upgrades, and transfers of materials continued to The Cold War was drawing to a close by the late s with the demise of the nuclear military threat from the Soviet Union.

At that time, military planners were reevaluating the conflict scenarios to be used for DoD budget planning. This would lead to major changes for the armed services and the stockpile in years to come. He then delegated the managerial functions to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Production and Logistics, supervised. The operational activities were delegated to the Director of the Defense Logistics Agency. The Defense National Stockpile Center was established as a field activity within the Defense Logistics Agency to manage the operations of the stockpile program DoD, The civilian agencies were now out of the stockpiling business except for being represented on the advisory committees.

Executive Order also directed that the Secretary of Defense stockpile manager must consult with heads of other agencies when performing stockpiling functions for example, disposals. DoD planning guidance began to change in The Cold War military conflict, as in the past, was still the scenario, but the reliability of foreign countries as sources for materials improved.

By , Caribbean Basin suppliers were considered reliable, and other foreign country reliabilities were modified. By the 3-year global war scenario was being questioned, the military force structure was reduced, and foreign countries were considered to be more reliable as suppliers. In , the scenario in use was a 3-year conflict with a 7- to 9-year warning period, which included a short military conflict followed by a 2-year stalemate, followed by another short military conflict.

Most foreign suppliers were considered to be reliable, and platinum group metals for automotive catalytic converters were taken off the requirements list. In , the scenario used to develop the stockpile requirements was the same as for other DoD planning: a 1-year conflict involving two overlapping major theater wars Halpern, Based on this report, requirements for strategic and critical materials had been reduced to nearly zero by Nearly all acquisitions and upgrades had stopped by FY, with very small amounts continuing until FY, when they were completed DoD, Congress would legislate acquisi-.

The committee would advise the National Stockpile Manager on the projected domestic and foreign economic effects of all acquisitions and disposals of stockpiled materials included in the Annual Materials Plan that is to be submitted to Congress each year DoD, The Annual Materials Plan specifies the maximum quantity of each commodity that may be sold or bought by the DoD in a given fiscal year.

This material was used to make lighter weight armor for the main battle tank DoD, Since the main sales program began in FY, Congress has earmarked part of the proceeds from the sale of DNS materials for particular revenue goals. In fact the sale of certain materials was assigned to fund specific programs. Owing to the large reductions in the number and quantities of materials, DNSC has been able to sharply reduce the number of facilities warehousing materials. Under the current plan, by the end FY, DNSC will have three operating, consolidated storage locations and a total workforce of Defense National Stockpile Center.

Department of Defense DoD. Stockpile Report to the Congress, October March Stockpile Report to Congress, April September Gutchess, F. Halpern, P. The Stockpile Requirements Process Since April Kulig, J. The National Defense Stockpile. Hartman, A. Cummins, and I. Given, eds. Littleton, Colo: Society for Mining Metallurgy. Morgan, John Davis, Jr.

Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 8 3 Office of Defense Mobilization. Stockpile Report to Congress, January—June Stockpile Report to the Congress - January—June, Snyder, D. San Francisco, Calif. Chandler Publishing. War Department and Navy Department. Since , the U.

The economic and national security environments, however, have changed significantly from the time the NDS was created. Current threats are more varied, production and processing of key materials is more globally dispersed, the global competition for raw materials is increasing, the U. To help determine the significance of these changes for the strategic materials stockpile, the Department of Defense asked the NRC to assess the continuing need for and value of the NDS.

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This report begins with the historical context of the NDS. It then presents a discussion of raw-materials and minerals supply, an examination of changing defense planning and materials needs, an analysis of modern tools used to manage materials supply chains, and an assessment of current operational practices of the NDS. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

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World Metal Markets: The United States Strategic Stockpile and Global Market Influence

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Apply Exchange. Other Specifications. The United States holds strategic stockpiles of nearly industrial minerals, metals and other commodities which have influenced the world commodity market in many ways. This work presents documentary and statistical evidence about the nature and size of these stockpiles. The images represent actual product though color of the image and product may slightly differ.

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